Ransomware is a type of malicious software that denies a user access to their files or computer system unless they pay a ransom.
Scams and fraud
Online scams are intended to manipulate or trick people into giving away their personal details, financial details, or money.
The term 'unauthorised access' describes the act of directly — or indirectly — accessing information online without authorisation.
Phishing is a type of email scam. The sender pretends to be a trustworthy organisation — like a bank or government agency — in an attempt to get you to provide them with personal information, particularly financial details.
A data breach is when private and confidential information is released into an unsecured environment. This usually means that the information becomes publicly available. It also means that others can use it for personal gain, or to cause harm to a business or individual.
Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks aim to restrict or impair access to a computer system or network. They typically target servers to make websites and payment services unavailable — preventing legitimate users from accessing the online information or services they need.
Online identity theft
Online identity theft is when someone gets personal information from another person, and uses it for their own gain.
'Malware' refers to any kind of malicious software designed to damage or harm a computer system.
Online child abuse
This is any kind of abuse of a child that happens on the internet.
Cyber bullying relates to any kind of bullying, harassment or abuse that’s carried out online, for example through social media, email or a website.
The term 'objectionable material' usually relates to any publication that deals with subjects like sex, horror, crime, cruelty and violence.
The term 'spam' refers to emails, SMS texts or faxes from an individual, or a company, that you didn’t ask to receive. It’s the junk mail that you get, advertising products or services you don’t want.
A credential dump is when a list of email addresses and other information (like passwords) is published online without permission. These credentials can be exploited by spammers and other cybercriminals.