Explore a range of common cyber security threats — find out how they work, how to prevent them, and what to do if they happen to you.
The term 'spam' refers to emails or texts from an individual, or a company, that you didn’t ask to receive. It’s the junk mail that you get, advertising products or services you don’t want.
Online scams are intended to manipulate or trick people into giving away their personal details, financial details, or money.
Identity theft is when someone takes personal information from another person, and uses it for their own gain.
Cyber bullying relates to any kind of bullying, harassment or abuse that’s carried out online, for example through social media, email or a website.
'Malware' refers to any kind of malicious software designed to damage or harm a computer system.
Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks aim to restrict or impair access to a computer system or network. They typically target servers to make websites and payment services unavailable — preventing legitimate users from accessing the online information or services they need.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software that denies a user access to their files or computer system unless they pay a ransom.
'Insider threat' is the term used to describe a malicious threat to a business or organisation from someone who has inside knowledge. It’s one of the biggest cyber security threats that businesses face.
The term 'unauthorised access' describes the act of directly — or indirectly — accessing information online without authorisation.
A data breach is when private and confidential information is released into an unsecured environment. This usually means that the information becomes publicly available. It also means that others can use it for personal gain, or to cause harm to a business or individual.
This is any kind of abuse of a child that happens on the internet.
The term 'objectionable material' usually relates to any publication that deals with subjects like sex, horror, crime, cruelty and violence.
Phishing is a type of email scam. The sender pretends to be a trustworthy organisation — like a bank or government agency — in an attempt to get you to provide them with personal information, particularly financial details.